Exchange 2000 Acronyms and Terminology

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<b>
<font face=”Verdana” size=”4″ color=”#000000″>Exchange 2000 Server – Acronyms and Terminology</font><font face=”Verdana” size=”2″ color=”#000000″><br>
&nbsp;</font></b></p>
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<h3><font size=”2″>ActiveX Data Objects – ADO</font></h3>
<p class=”Body”>A programming layer built on top of OLE DB that allows
high-level programming languages such as Visual Basic and VBScript to access an
underlying data store through a common query language. In this instance, a data
store can be Active Directory, the Exchange 2000 store, or a SQL database.</p>
<h3><font size=”2″>Active Directory Connector – ADC</font></h3>
<p class=”Body”>The service that replicates information between the Exchange
Server 5.5 directory and Active Directory. Replicated objects include mailboxes,
custom recipients, distribution lists, and site configuration information. ADC
uses Connection Agreements (CAs) to define individual configurations for
replication. The Exchange 2000 ADC is also used to allow Exchange 5<i>.x</i> and
Exchange 2000 servers to coexist within the same Exchange site. </p>
<p class=”Body”>Note that two versions of the ADC exist; one for Windows 2000
and one for Exchange 2000. For more information, see “PT101 – Deploying the
Active Directory Connector.”</p>
<h3><font size=”2″>Administration group</font></h3>
<p class=”Body”>A collection of Exchange 2000 servers than can be administered
as a single unit. An administration group can include zero or more policies,
routing groups, public folder trees, monitors, servers, conferencing services,
and chat networks. When security settings (permissions) are applied to an
administration group, all child objects in the DS tree inherit the same Access
Control Lists (ACLs) as the administration group node. Note that an
administration group does not define the routing topology for messages; this is
handled by routing groups.</p>
<h3><font size=”2″>Bridgehead</font></h3>
<p class=”Body”>A nominated server that acts as a message transfer point between
Exchange 2000 routing groups. This term can also refer to the computer hosting a
directory replication connector.</p>
<h3><font size=”2″>Collaboration Data Objects 1.21 – CDO 1.21 (also known as Active Messaging
and OLE Messaging)</font></h3>
<p class=”Body”>An application programming interface (API) that allows users and
applications to access data objects within an Exchange server. CDO defines the
concept of different object classes including messages (<b>IPM.Note</b>), posts
(<b>IPM.Post</b>), appointments (<b>IPM.Appointment</b>), and tasks (<b>IPM.Task</b>).
Message stores and folder hierarchies can also be manipulated through CDO 1.21</p>
<p class=”Body”>CDO 1.21 is included with Exchange Server 5.5 and its services
are supplied from the CDO.DLL file.</p>
<h3><font size=”2″>Collaboration Data Objects (CDO) for Windows 2000</font></h3>
<p class=”Body”>CDO for Windows 2000 is defined in the Windows 2000 section
earlier in this document.</p>
<h3><font size=”2″>Collaboration Data Objects (CDO) for Exchange 2000</font></h3>
<p class=”Body”>An API that is a superset of CDO for Windows 2000. In addition
to gaining programmatic access to the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) and
Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP) stacks, CDO for Exchange 2000 provides
support for the creation and manipulation of message items, appointments, and
contact cards.</p>
<p class=”Body”>CDO for Exchange 2000 is included with Exchange 2000 and its
services are supplied from the CDOEX.DLL file.</p>
<h3><font size=”2″>CDO for System Management (formerly known as Exchange Management Objects –
EMO)</font></h3>
<p class=”Body”>An API that allows administrators to programmatically access
management information on an Exchange 2000 server, including databases and
mailboxes. Services are supplied out of EMO.DLL file.</p>
<h3><font size=”2″>Conferencing Management Service – CMS</font></h3>
<p class=”Body”>The network service that coordinates the booking of virtual
resources for online meetings in the Exchange Conference Service. Each site (not
domain) normally has an active Conferencing Management Service to allow fast
connection for data conferencing users.</p>
<p class=”Body”><b><span style=”letter-spacing: -.5pt”>Conference Technology
Provider – CTP</span></b></p>
<p class=”Body”><span style=”letter-spacing: -.5pt”>A provider of data
conferencing services such as real-time video, audio, and telephony integration.</span></p>
<h3><font size=”2″>Configuration Connection Agreement – ConfigCA</font></h3>
<p class=”Body”>A special Connection Agreement implemented as part of the Active
Directory Connector that replicates configuration naming context data from
downlevel Exchange 5<i>.x</i> sites to administration groups in Active Directory
and vice versa. ConfigCAs work in conjunction with the Site Replication Service.</p>
<h3><font size=”2″>Connection Agreement</font></h3>
<p class=”Body”>The configuration of information to replicate using the Active
Directory Connector. Configuration information includes the servers that
participate in the replication; which object classes (mailbox, custom recipient,
distribution list and user, contact, and group) to replicate; containers and
organization units to use for object placement; and the activity time schedule.</p>
<h3><font size=”2″>Distributed Authoring and Versioning – DAV (also known as HTTP-DAV and Web-DAV)</font></h3>
<p class=”Body”>An extension to the Hypertext Transfer Protocol 1.1 (HTTP/1.1)
that allows for the manipulation (readinf and writing) of objects and attributes
on a Web server. Exchange 2000 natively supports WebDAV. Although not
specifically designed for the purpose, DAV allows for the control of data using
a filing system-like protocol. DAV commands include <b>Lock</b>, <b>Unlock</b>,
<b>Propfind</b> and <b>Proppatch</b>. For more information, see “PT105 –
Understanding Exchange 2000 Storage Technology.”</p>
<h3><font size=”2″>DSAccess</font></h3>
<p class=”Body”>The Exchange 2000 component that provides directory lookup
services for components such as SMTP, Message Transfer Agent (MTA), and the
store. Client requests use the DSProxy service for directory access. For more
information, see “PT102 – Exchange 2000 Directory Access and Integration with
Windows 2000.”</p>
<h3><font size=”2″>DSProxy</font></h3>
<p class=”Body”>The Exchange 2000 component that can proxy (and refer) Messaging
Application Programming Interface (MAPI) DS requests from Outlook clients to
Active Directory for Address Book lookup and name resolution. For more
information, see “PT102 – Exchange 2000 Directory Access and Integration with
Windows 2000.”</p>
<h3><font size=”2″>Epoxy</font></h3>
<p class=”Body”>See <i>EXIPC</i></p>
<h3><font size=”2″>Event sink</font></h3>
<p class=”Body”>A piece of code that is activated by a defined trigger, such as
the reception of a new message. The code is normally written in any
COM-compatible programming language such as Visual Basic, VBScript, JavaScript,
C,&nbsp; or C++. Exchange 2000 supports the following event sinks:</p>
<ul>
<li>
<p class=”Body” style=”text-indent: -.25in; margin-left: .5in”>
transport</p>
</li>
<li>
<p class=”Body” style=”text-indent: -.25in; margin-left: .5in”>
protocol</p>
</li>
<li>
<p class=”Body” style=”text-indent: -.25in; margin-left: .5in”>
store</p>
</li>
</ul>
<p class=”Body”>Event sinks on the store can be synchronous (code executes as
the event is triggered) or asynchronous (code executes sometime after the
event).</p>
<h3><font size=”2″>Exchange Conferencing Services – ECS</font></h3>
<p class=”Body”>A service that allows users to meet in virtual rooms on the
Exchange server. Exchange Conferencing Services defines the use of a
Conferencing Management Service to coordinate the room bookings and a T.120
Multipoint Control Unit (MCU) for the actual connection of clients to a
conferencing session. </p>
<h3><font size=”2″>Exchange Virtual Server – EVS</font></h3>
<p class=”Body”>When clustering, you allocate different resources (such as
Storage Groups) to an EVS. Upon node failure, an EVS can be moved from the
failed node to one of the remaining nodes. </p>
<h3><font size=”2″>EXIPC (formerly known as Epoxy)</font></h3>
<p class=”Body”>A queuing layer that allows the IIS and store processes
(Inetinfo.exe and Store.exe) to shuttle data back and forth very quickly. This
is required to achieve the best possible performance between the protocols and
database services on an Exchange 2000 server. Conventional applications require
the processor to switch contexts when transferring data between two processes.</p>
<p class=”Body”>Exchange Server 5.5 incorporated protocols such as NNTP, Post
Office Protocol 3 (POP3), and Internet Messaging Access Protocol (IMAP) directly
into the Store.exe process, so data transfer was very efficient. The Exchange
2000 architecture separates the protocols from the database for ease of
management and to support future architectures.</p>
<h3><font size=”2″>Extensible Storage Engine – ESE (also known as JET)</font></h3>
<p class=”Body”>Formerly known as JET, the ESE is a method that defines a very
low-level API to the underlying database structures in Exchange Server. Other
databases, such as the Active Directory database (Ntds.dit), also use ESE.
Exchange 2000 uses ESE98, whereas Exchange 5.5 and Active Directory use the
older ESE97 interface.</p>
<h3><font size=”2″>Front-end/back-end</font></h3>
<p class=”Body”>An Exchange 2000 configuration in which clients access a bank of
protocol servers (the front-end) for collaboration information, and these
in-turn, communicate with the data stores on separate servers (the back-end) to
retrieve the physical data. A front-end/back-end configuration allows for a
scalable, single point of contact for all Exchange-related data.</p>
<h3><font size=”2″>Hosted organization (also known as virtual server, virtual machine, virtual
organization)</font></h3>
<p class=”Body”>A collection of Exchange services including, but not limited to
virtual servers (that is, instances of Internet Message Access Protocol 4
(IMAP4), SMTP, POP3, NNTP, HTTP, RVP), storage space, and real-time
collaboration facilities that exist to serve the needs of a single company. A
hosted organization is normally used by Internet Service Providers to host
multiple companies on the same physical computer. However, a hosted organization
is not limited to a single Exchange 2000 server.</p>
<h3><font size=”2″>HTTP-DAV</font></h3>
<p class=”Body”>See <i>Distributed Authoring and Versioning</i>.</p>
<h3><font size=”2″>Installable Filing System – IFS</font></h3>
<p class=”Body”>See <i>Web Storage System</i></p>
<h3><font size=”2″>Instant Messaging – IM</font></h3>
<p class=”Body”>The Exchange 2000 service that allows for real-time messaging
and collaboration between users. Clients generally use the MSN Messenger client
to log on to Instant Messaging and subscribe to other users. For more
information, see “PT106 – Deploying Real-Time Collaboration Services in Exchange
2000.”</p>
<h3><font size=”2″>Instant Messaging Presence Protocol – IMPP</font></h3>
<p class=”Body”>The standards-based protocol clients use to interact with an
Instant Messaging server. IMPP is being developed by leading vendors, including
Microsoft and Lotus. The Instant Messaging service in Exchange 2000 uses a
Microsoft published protocol called RVP while IMPP is being ratified.</p>
<h3><font size=”2″>Internet Messaging Access Protocol version 4 – IMAP4</font></h3>
<p class=”Body”>A standard-based protocol for accessing mailbox information.
IMAP4 is considered to be more advanced than POP3 because it supports basic
online capabilities and access to folders other than the Inbox. Exchange Server
5.x and Exchange 2000 both support IMAP4.</p>
<h3><font size=”2″>Joint Engine Technology – JET</font></h3>
<p class=”Body”>Defines the low-level access to underlying database structures
in Exchange Server 4.0 and 5.0. JET was superceded with ESE in Exchange Server
5.5 and Exchange 2000 .</p>
<h3><font size=”2″>Link State Algorithm – LSA</font></h3>
<p class=”Body”>The algorithm used to propagate routing status information
between Exchange 2000 servers. Based on “Dijkstra’s algorithm”, link state
information is transferred between routing groups using the X-LINK2STATE command
verb over SMTP and within a routing group using a Transmission Control Protocol
(TCP) connection to port 691.</p>
<h3><font size=”2″>Mail-based replication – MBR</font></h3>
<p class=”Body”>A mechanism to replicate directory information through a
messaging transport. This term applies to Exchange 5<i>.x</i> inter-site
directory replication, and additionally, Active Directory replication through
SMTP.</p>
<h3><font size=”2″>MDB</font></h3>
<p class=”Body”>An instance of a database implemented in Exchange server. A
single MDB is normally identified as being public or private depending on the
type of data that it stores. A single Exchange 2000 server can accommodate up to
24 active MDBs.</p>
<h3><font size=”2″>Message Transfer Agent – MTA</font></h3>
<p class=”Body”>The component in all versions of Exchange Server that transfers
messages between servers using the X.400 protocol.</p>
<h3><font size=”2″>Messaging Application Programming Interface – MAPI</font></h3>
<p class=”Body”>The API that is used by Microsoft messaging applications such as
Outlook to access collaboration data. MAPI, or more specifically, MAPI Remote
Procedure Calls (RPC), is also used as the transport protocol between Outlook
clients and Exchange servers.</p>
<h3><font size=”2″>Metabase</font></h3>
<p class=”Body”>A store that contains metadata such as that used by IIS to
obtain its configuration data. The metabase can be viewed through utilities such
as Metaedit.</p>
<h3><font size=”2″>Metabase update service</font></h3>
<p class=”Body”>A component in Exchange 2000 that reads data from Active
Directory and transposes it into the local IIS metabase. The metabase update
service allows the administrator to make remote configuration changes to virtual
servers without a permanent connection to each system.</p>
<h3><font size=”2″>Metadata</font></h3>
<p class=”Body”>Data about data. In relation to Exchange, <span lang=”EN-AU”>
this term can be used in the context of Active Directory, but can also be used
to describe the structure within the store or the MTA.</span></p>
<h3><font size=”2″>Mixed-vintage site (also known as “PtOz”)</font></h3>
<p class=”Body”>An Exchange 5<i>.x</i> site that also contains Exchange 2000
servers.</p>
<h3><font size=”2″>Multipoint Control Unit – MCU</font></h3>
<p class=”Body”>A reference to the T.120 protocol that allows clients to connect
to data conferencing sessions. MCUs can communicate with each other to transfer
conferencing information.</p>
<h3><font size=”2″>Name Service Provider Interface – NSPI</font></h3>
<p class=”Body”>Part of the DSProxy process that can accept Outlook client
directory requests and pass them to an address book provider.</p>
<h3><font size=”2″>Network News Transfer Protocol – NNTP</font></h3>
<p class=”Body”>A standards-based protocol that includes simple command verbs to
transfer USENET messages between clients and servers, and between servers. NNTP
uses Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) port 119.</p>
<h3><font size=”2″>OLE DB</font></h3>
<p class=”Body”>An API that allows low-level programming languages such as C and
C++ to access dissimilar data stores through a common query language. OLE DB is
seen as the replacement for Open Database Connectivity (ODBC). Data stores such
as those in Exchange 2000 and SQL Server allow for OLE DB access, which makes
application development easier and faster.</p>
<p class=”Body”>High-level programming languages such as Visual Basic can use
ADO to issue queries through OLE DB.</p>
<h3><font size=”2″>Outlook Web Access</font></h3>
<p class=”Body”><span lang=”EN-AU”>The Web browser interface to Exchange Server
mailbox and public folder data. The Outlook Web Access client in Exchange Server
5<i>.x</i> uses Active Server Pages to render collaboration data into HTML,
whereas the Outlook Web Access Client in Exchange 2000 uses native access to the
store.</span></p>
<h3><font size=”2″>Policy</font></h3>
<p class=”Body”>A collection of configuration settings that can be applied to
objects of the same class in Active Directory. In relation to Exchange 2000,
this may include mailbox thresholds and deleted item retention.</p>
<h3><font size=”2″>Post Office Protocol version 3 – POP3</font></h3>
<p class=”Body”>A standards-based protocol for simple access to Inbox data. All
versions of Exchange server except version 4.0 support POP3. POP3 uses TCP/IP
port 110 for client to server access.</p>
<h3><font size=”2″>Protocol farm</font></h3>
<p class=”Body”>A collection of virtual servers that are used as the primary
connection point for users in an organization. The farm abstracts the connection
protocols from the location of the back-end data,&nbsp; which allows users to access
information without having to know its physical location.</p>
<h3><font size=”2″>Public folder tree (also known as public folder root and top level hierarchy
– TLH)</font></h3>
<p class=”Body”>A collection of public folders created under the same
hierarchical namespace. Previous releases of Exchange server used only a single
tree (called: All Public Folders), whereas multiple trees can be defined in
Exchange 2000. Each tree is a unit of hierarchy replication and can be
replicated to one or more Public MDBs. A Public MDB can host only one tree. MAPI
clients such as Outlook can only access a single tree called <i>All Public
Folders</i>, whereas other clients such as a Web browser or a networking client
using the Microsoft Web Storage System can access any tree that is defined.</p>
<h3><font size=”2″>Recipient Update Service – RUS</font></h3>
<p class=”Body”>This is part of the Exchange System Attendant and is responsible
for keeping Address Lists up-to-date and creating proxy addresses for users.</p>
<h3><font size=”2″>Remote Procedure Calls – RPC</font></h3>
<p class=”Body”>A reliable synchronous protocol that transfers data between
clients and servers, and between servers. Outlook clients use MAPI RPC for
accessing mailboxes and public folders, and Exchange 2000 servers communicate
with the Exchange Server 5.x MTA using RPC (in a mixed-vintage organization).</p>
<h3><font size=”2″>Resource</font></h3>
<p class=”Body”>In real-time collaboration, a user object in Active Directory
that represents a facility. A resource is used by Outlook users for booking
meetings and data conferences. Resources are stored in the “System \ Exchange”
Organization Unit in the Active Directory.</p>
<h3><font size=”2″>Routing group</font></h3>
<p class=”Body”>A collection of Exchange 2000 servers that can transfer
messaging data to one another in a single-hop without going through a
bridgehead. In general, Exchange servers within a single routing group have
high-bandwidth, resilient network links between each other.</p>
<p class=”Body”>Additionally, a routing group defines the boundary for public
folder access.</p>
<h3><font size=”2″>Routing Group Connector – RGC</font></h3>
<p class=”Body”>A connector in Exchange 2000 that connects routing groups to one
another. An RGC is uni-directional and can have separate configuration
properties (such as allowable message types over the connection). Routing Group
Connectors use the concept of local and remote bridgeheads to dictate which
servers in the routing groups can communicate over the link. The underlying
message transport for an RGC is either SMTP or RPC and it uses link state
information to route messages efficiently.</p>
<h3><font size=”2″>Routing service</font></h3>
<p class=”Body”>A component in Exchange 2000 that builds link state information.</p>
<h3><font size=”2″>RVP (Note that this name is preliminary)</font></h3>
<p class=”Body”>The Microsoft published protocol that is used between the MSN
Messenger service and the Instant Messaging server that is implemented on
Exchange 2000. RVP uses an extended subset of HTTP-DAV with an Extensible Markup
Language (XML) payload to send subscriptions and notifications between Instant
Messaging clients and servers.</p>
<h3><font size=”2″>Schema</font></h3>
<p class=”Body”><span lang=”EN-AU”>The metadata (data about data) that describes
how objects are used within a given structure. In relation to Exchange, this
term may be used in the context of Active Directory, but it can also be used to
describe the structure within the store or the MTA.</span></p>
<h3><font size=”2″>Simple Message Transfer Protocol – SMTP</font></h3>
<p class=”Body”>A major standards-based protocol that allows for the transfer of
messages between different messaging servers. SMTP is defined under RFC821 and
uses simple command verbs to facilitate message transport over TCP/IP port 25.</p>
<h3><font size=”2″>Sink</font></h3>
<p class=”Body”>See <i>Event Sink</i>.</p>
<h3><font size=”2″>Site Consistency Checker – SCC (also known as the SKCC)</font></h3>
<p class=”Body”>The updated version of the Exchange Server 5.5 Knowledge
Consistency Checker (KCC) that works in conjunction with (and is part of) the
Exchange Site Replication Service to ensure that knowledge consistency of sites,
administration groups and Active Directory domains is maintained when
interoperating between Exchange 2000 and Exchange 5.5. When changes are detected
in either environment, the SCC may create new Connection Agreements (disabled)
for the ADC.</p>
<h3><font size=”2″>Site Replication Service – SRS</font></h3>
<p class=”Body”><span lang=”EN-AU”>A directory service (similar to the directory
used in Exchange Server 5.5) implemented in Exchange 2000 to allow the
integration with downstream Exchange 5<i>.x</i> sites using both RPC and
mail-based replication. The SRS works in conjunction with the Active Directory
Connector to provide replication services from Active Directory to the Exchange
5<i>.x</i> Directory Service.</span></p>
<h3><font size=”2″>Storage group</font></h3>
<p class=”Body”>A collection of Exchange databases on an Exchange 2000 server
that share the same ESE instance and transaction log. Individual databases
within a storage group can be mounted and dismounted. Each Exchange 2000 server
can architecturally host up to 16 storage groups, although only 4 can be defined
through the Exchange System Manager.</p>
<h3><font size=”2″>Store</font></h3>
<p class=”Body”>The generic name given to the storage subsystem on an Exchange
server. This term is used interchangeably to describe the Store.exe process and
Exchange databases.</p>
<h3><font size=”2″>System attendant</font></h3>
<p class=”Body”>One of the core Exchange 2000 services that performs
miscellaneous functions (usually related to directory information) such as
generation of address lists, offline Address Books, and directory lookup
facilities.</p>
<h3><font size=”2″>T.120</font></h3>
<p class=”Body”>A standards-based protocol used with Exchange Data Conferencing.
Clients such as Microsoft NetMeeting are T.120 compatible.</p>
<h3><font size=”2″>Virtual root</font></h3>
<p class=”Body”>A shortcut pointer to a physical storage location. Virtual roots
are normally defined to allow users and applications to connect with a short
”friendly” path instead of navigating a complex hierarchy.</p>
<p class=”Body”>Internet Information Server (IIS) uses the concept of virtual
roots to expose resources provided by a Web Server.</p>
<h3><font size=”2″>Virtual server</font></h3>
<p class=”Body”>An instance of any service type normally implemented in IIS. For
example, a virtual server can be an instance of:</p>
<ul>
<li>
<p class=”Body” style=”text-indent: -.25in; margin-left: .5in”>
FTP</p>
</li>
<li>
<p class=”Body” style=”text-indent: -.25in; margin-left: .5in”>
IMAP</p>
</li>
<li>
<p class=”Body” style=”text-indent: -.25in; margin-left: .5in”>
Instant Messaging (RVP)</p>
</li>
<li>
<p class=”Body” style=”text-indent: -.25in; margin-left: .5in”>
HTTP</p>
</li>
<li>
<p class=”Body” style=”text-indent: -.25in; margin-left: .5in”>
NNTP</p>
</li>
<li>
<p class=”Body” style=”text-indent: -.25in; margin-left: .5in”>
POP</p>
</li>
<li>
<p class=”Body” style=”text-indent: -.25in; margin-left: .5in”>
SMTP</p>
</li>
</ul>
<p class=”Body”>An Exchange 2000 server can host multiple virtual servers of the
same type on each computer. Each virtual server can have its own configuration
properties, such as bound IP addresses, port number, and authentication type.</p>
<h3><font size=”2″>Web-DAV</font></h3>
<p class=”Body”>See <i>Distributed Authoring and Versioning</i>.</p>
<h3><font size=”2″>Web Storage System</font></h3>
<p class=”Body”>The database architecture in Exchange 2000. Previous releases of
Exchange only exposed data such as public folders through MAPI, whereas Exchange
2000 exposes all of its data through MAPI, HTTP, OLE DB and Win32 layers.</p>
<p class=”Body”>This means that an object stored in a public folder can be
retrieved and manipulated through a Web browser or a standard client with a
network redirector. The Exchange 2000 store exposes itself to the operating
system as an installable filing system, which means that the underlying data can
be accessed through a drive letter, and in turn, this drive and its folders can
be shared via a universal naming convention (UNC) path to allow other clients to
connect to the data.</p>
<hr color=”#C0C0C0″ size=”1″>
<p><font style=”font-size: 8pt” face=”Verdana”>(Source: Microsoft’s whitepaper
&quot;Microsoft Windows 2000 and Microsoft Exchange 2000 Server Terminology Primer&quot;)</font></p><!–
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